# Fast DQBF Refutation (full version)

Bernd Finkbeiner and Leander Tentrup

Dependency Quantified Boolean Formulas (DQBF) extend QBF with Henkin quantifiers, which allow for non-linear dependencies between the quantified variables. This extension is useful in verification problems for incomplete designs, such as the partial equivalence checking (PEC) problem, where a partial circuit, with some parts left open as ‘black boxes’, is compared against a full circuit. The PEC problem is to decide whether the black boxes in the partial circuit can be filled in such a way that the two circuits become equivalent, while respecting that each black box only observes the subset of the signals that are designated as its input. We present a new algorithm that efficiently refutes unsatisfiable DQBF formulas. The algorithm detects situations in which already a subset of the possible assignments of the universally quantified variables suffices to rule out a satisfying assignment of the existentially quantified variables. Our experimental evaluation on PEC benchmarks shows that the new algorithm is a significant improvement both over approximative QBF-based methods, where our results are much more accurate, and over precise methods based on variable elimination, where the new algorithm scales better in the number of Henkin quantifiers.

AVACS Technical Report No. 97.